Are bonds as safe as they seem ?

4 min read

The Truth About Bonds: Are They Really Safe Investments?

Bonds have long been considered a safe investment option, promising a return of the principal amount, annual interest payments, and the full repayment at maturity. However, what happens when you invest in long-term bonds, and interest rates suddenly spike up during that period? Contrary to popular belief, bonds can lose value dramatically under such circumstances, and it’s essential to understand the risks involved. In this article, we will explore the impact of rising interest rates on bond ETFs and shed light on the reality of bond investments.

One popular bond ETF is the TLT, traded on Nasdaq, which has been experiencing a significant decline over the past three years. Starting from a peak of $180, it has plummeted to $88, losing more than 50% of its value during that period. This unexpected decline may sound perplexing, but it is a direct result of the duration of the bonds held by the ETF and the subsequent increase in interest rates.

Essentially, when interest rates rise, the value of bonds goes down. This inverse relationship means that the bonds held by the ETF are currently marked down due to the movement of yields. To put it into perspective, let’s take a closer look at the historical performance of the TLT ETF since its launch in 2002. In the initial years, the ETF showed steady growth, rising from $80 to $180, with a gain of approximately 150% over the course of 18-20 years yielding a solid CAGR of approximately 4.5%.

These gains were achieved through a net compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of around 4.5% from a bond perspective. However, everything changed when interest rates started to rise. With yields surging from near zero to around four and a half percent, the ETF has now relinquished all the gains it accumulated over the previous two decades.

Imagine being an investor who watched their net worth increase by one and a half times, only to see it return to the same value after 20 years. Alternatively, consider the retiree who sought the safety of bonds during times of market volatility, only to face a 50% decline in their net worth within three years.

Time to re-evaluate your assumptions about bonds ?

The unpredictability of bond investments during an interim period is astounding. While the ETF may continue to buy new bonds at higher yields to support its price, investors who entered the market during this period are unlikely to regain their initial investment level. Some investors have even experienced substantial losses in the form of 100-year bonds originally bought at 1% or 2% interest rates. With the surge in interest rates, these bonds have already depreciated by 50%, 60%, or even 70%.

This volatile nature of bonds may come as a surprise to many, especially considering the belief ingrained in our minds that bonds are infallibly safe. For the past four decades, interest rates have consistently decreased, reinforcing this perception. However, the real-time market performance of bonds tells a different story, one that should urge investors to re-evaluate their assumptions.

Even if you hold a ten-year or twenty-year bond, experiencing a 30% decline in value, the reassurance of getting your principal back at maturity may provide some solace. However, it’s essential to consider the impact of inflation during that period. Will the value of that principal amount still hold its worth in a high-inflation environment? This question raises concerns about the actual value and return on investment in bonds.

It is crucial for investors to understand the risks associated with bonds and have a realistic outlook on their investment options. While bonds can still provide stability and a steady income stream in certain scenarios, the possibility of significant losses exists, especially when interest rates rise. Diversification and a comprehensive investment strategy that considers various asset classes and risk levels are necessary to mitigate such risks effectively.


The notion that bonds are completely safe investments might need to be reevaluated. The recent performance of bond ETFs, such as the TLT, reveals how dramatically bond values can decline when interest rates spike. Investors must thoroughly examine the risks and returns associated with bonds, especially in a fluctuating interest rate environment. While bonds can still be a part of a well-diversified portfolio, blindly depending on their safety might not be wise. It is essential to consult with financial advisors, conduct thorough research, and consider multiple investment options to make informed decisions that align with individual financial goals and risk tolerance.

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    Are bonds as safe as they seem ?